Agriculture is the main source of livelihood for about 90% of the population, both in terms of basic nutritional needs, income generating activities and social organization. Maize, rice, cassava, banana, beans are the main food crops whereas tobacco, tea and sugar cane are the main cash crops grown in the district. Also live stock represents an essential part of Kikuube’s agriculture as well as poultry and piggery on a smaller extent.

Kikuube district is richly endowed with natural water bodies and this has made fishing a major economic activity for communities living along the Lake. Most Fishing is done on Lake Albert, and this has greatly influenced the social and economic development in the district.

Oil and gas mining are a recent economic activity in the Albertine rift valley in the sub counties of Kyangwali and Kabwoya.  The oil activities in the Albertine Graben are taking place in a unique and vulnerable environment with many of the activities taking place at or close to the shores of Lake Albert. Oil is garnering much attention because it will be the source of a majority of Uganda’s public revenue, and a primary contributor to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).